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1Notes on the Free Translation Project
2*************************************
3
4 Free software is going international! The Free Translation Project
5is a way to get maintainers of free software, translators, and users all
6together, so that will gradually become able to speak many languages.
7A few packages already provide translations for their messages.
8
9 If you found this `ABOUT-NLS' file inside a distribution, you may
10assume that the distributed package does use GNU `gettext' internally,
11itself available at your nearest GNU archive site. But you do _not_
12need to install GNU `gettext' prior to configuring, installing or using
13this package with messages translated.
14
15 Installers will find here some useful hints. These notes also
16explain how users should proceed for getting the programs to use the
17available translations. They tell how people wanting to contribute and
18work at translations should contact the appropriate team.
19
20 When reporting bugs in the `intl/' directory or bugs which may be
21related to internationalization, you should tell about the version of
22`gettext' which is used. The information can be found in the
23`intl/VERSION' file, in internationalized packages.
24
25Quick configuration advice
26==========================
27
28 If you want to exploit the full power of internationalization, you
29should configure it using
30
31 ./configure --with-included-gettext
32
33to force usage of internationalizing routines provided within this
34package, despite the existence of internationalizing capabilities in the
35operating system where this package is being installed. So far, only
36the `gettext' implementation in the GNU C library version 2 provides as
37many features (such as locale alias, message inheritance, automatic
38charset conversion or plural form handling) as the implementation here.
39It is also not possible to offer this additional functionality on top
40of a `catgets' implementation. Future versions of GNU `gettext' will
41very likely convey even more functionality. So it might be a good idea
42to change to GNU `gettext' as soon as possible.
43
44 So you need _not_ provide this option if you are using GNU libc 2 or
45you have installed a recent copy of the GNU gettext package with the
46included `libintl'.
47
48INSTALL Matters
49===============
50
51 Some packages are "localizable" when properly installed; the
52programs they contain can be made to speak your own native language.
53Most such packages use GNU `gettext'. Other packages have their own
54ways to internationalization, predating GNU `gettext'.
55
56 By default, this package will be installed to allow translation of
57messages. It will automatically detect whether the system already
58provides the GNU `gettext' functions. If not, the GNU `gettext' own
59library will be used. This library is wholly contained within this
60package, usually in the `intl/' subdirectory, so prior installation of
61the GNU `gettext' package is _not_ required. Installers may use
62special options at configuration time for changing the default
63behaviour. The commands:
64
65 ./configure --with-included-gettext
66 ./configure --disable-nls
67
68will respectively bypass any pre-existing `gettext' to use the
69internationalizing routines provided within this package, or else,
70_totally_ disable translation of messages.
71
72 When you already have GNU `gettext' installed on your system and run
73configure without an option for your new package, `configure' will
74probably detect the previously built and installed `libintl.a' file and
75will decide to use this. This might be not what is desirable. You
76should use the more recent version of the GNU `gettext' library. I.e.
77if the file `intl/VERSION' shows that the library which comes with this
78package is more recent, you should use
79
80 ./configure --with-included-gettext
81
82to prevent auto-detection.
83
84 The configuration process will not test for the `catgets' function
85and therefore it will not be used. The reason is that even an
86emulation of `gettext' on top of `catgets' could not provide all the
87extensions of the GNU `gettext' library.
88
89 Internationalized packages have usually many `po/LL.po' files, where
90LL gives an ISO 639 two-letter code identifying the language. Unless
91translations have been forbidden at `configure' time by using the
92`--disable-nls' switch, all available translations are installed
93together with the package. However, the environment variable `LINGUAS'
94may be set, prior to configuration, to limit the installed set.
95`LINGUAS' should then contain a space separated list of two-letter
96codes, stating which languages are allowed.
97
98Using This Package
99==================
100
101 As a user, if your language has been installed for this package, you
102only have to set the `LANG' environment variable to the appropriate
103`LL_CC' combination. Here `LL' is an ISO 639 two-letter language code,
104and `CC' is an ISO 3166 two-letter country code. For example, let's
105suppose that you speak German and live in Germany. At the shell
106prompt, merely execute `setenv LANG de_DE' (in `csh'),
107`export LANG; LANG=de_DE' (in `sh') or `export LANG=de_DE' (in `bash').
108This can be done from your `.login' or `.profile' file, once and for
109all.
110
111 You might think that the country code specification is redundant.
112But in fact, some languages have dialects in different countries. For
113example, `de_AT' is used for Austria, and `pt_BR' for Brazil. The
114country code serves to distinguish the dialects.
115
116 The locale naming convention of `LL_CC', with `LL' denoting the
117language and `CC' denoting the country, is the one use on systems based
118on GNU libc. On other systems, some variations of this scheme are
119used, such as `LL' or `LL_CC.ENCODING'. You can get the list of
120locales supported by your system for your country by running the command
121`locale -a | grep '^LL''.
122
123 Not all programs have translations for all languages. By default, an
124English message is shown in place of a nonexistent translation. If you
125understand other languages, you can set up a priority list of languages.
126This is done through a different environment variable, called
127`LANGUAGE'. GNU `gettext' gives preference to `LANGUAGE' over `LANG'
128for the purpose of message handling, but you still need to have `LANG'
129set to the primary language; this is required by other parts of the
130system libraries. For example, some Swedish users who would rather
131read translations in German than English for when Swedish is not
132available, set `LANGUAGE' to `sv:de' while leaving `LANG' to `sv_SE'.
133
134 In the `LANGUAGE' environment variable, but not in the `LANG'
135environment variable, `LL_CC' combinations can be abbreviated as `LL'
136to denote the language's main dialect. For example, `de' is equivalent
137to `de_DE' (German as spoken in Germany), and `pt' to `pt_PT'
138(Portuguese as spoken in Portugal) in this context.
139
140Translating Teams
141=================
142
143 For the Free Translation Project to be a success, we need interested
144people who like their own language and write it well, and who are also
145able to synergize with other translators speaking the same language.
146Each translation team has its own mailing list. The up-to-date list of
147teams can be found at the Free Translation Project's homepage,
148`http://www.iro.umontreal.ca/contrib/po/HTML/', in the "National teams"
149area.
150
151 If you'd like to volunteer to _work_ at translating messages, you
152should become a member of the translating team for your own language.
153The subscribing address is _not_ the same as the list itself, it has
154`-request' appended. For example, speakers of Swedish can send a
155message to `sv-request@li.org', having this message body:
156
157 subscribe
158
159 Keep in mind that team members are expected to participate
160_actively_ in translations, or at solving translational difficulties,
161rather than merely lurking around. If your team does not exist yet and
162you want to start one, or if you are unsure about what to do or how to
163get started, please write to `translation@iro.umontreal.ca' to reach the
164coordinator for all translator teams.
165
166 The English team is special. It works at improving and uniformizing
167the terminology in use. Proven linguistic skill are praised more than
168programming skill, here.
169
170Available Packages
171==================
172
173 Languages are not equally supported in all packages. The following
174matrix shows the current state of internationalization, as of May 2003.
175The matrix shows, in regard of each package, for which languages PO
176files have been submitted to translation coordination, with a
177translation percentage of at least 50%.
178
179 Ready PO files am az be bg ca cs da de el en en_GB eo es
180 +-------------------------------------------+
181 a2ps | [] [] [] [] |
182 aegis | () |
183 anubis | |
184 ap-utils | |
185 bash | [] [] [] |
186 batchelor | |
187 bfd | [] [] |
188 binutils | [] [] |
189 bison | [] [] [] |
190 bluez-pin | [] [] |
191 clisp | |
192 clisp | [] [] [] |
193 coreutils | [] [] [] [] |
194 cpio | [] [] [] |
195 darkstat | () [] |
196 diffutils | [] [] [] [] [] [] [] |
197 e2fsprogs | [] [] |
198 enscript | [] [] [] [] |
199 error | [] [] [] [] [] |
200 fetchmail | [] () [] [] [] [] |
201 fileutils | [] [] [] |
202 findutils | [] [] [] [] [] [] |
203 flex | [] [] [] [] |
204 gas | [] |
205 gawk | [] [] [] [] |
206 gcal | [] |
207 gcc | [] [] |
208 gettext | [] [] [] [] [] |
209 gettext-runtime | [] [] [] [] [] |
210 gettext-tools | [] [] |
211 gimp-print | [] [] [] [] [] |
212 gliv | |
213 glunarclock | [] [] [] |
214 gnucash | () [] |
215 gnucash-glossary | [] () [] |
216 gnupg | [] () [] [] [] [] |
217 gpe-calendar | [] |
218 gpe-conf | [] |
219 gpe-contacts | [] |
220 gpe-edit | |
221 gpe-login | [] |
222 gpe-ownerinfo | [] |
223 gpe-sketchbook | [] |
224 gpe-timesheet | |
225 gpe-today | [] |
226 gpe-todo | [] |
227 gphoto2 | [] [] [] [] |
228 gprof | [] [] |
229 gpsdrive | () () () |
230 grep | [] [] [] [] [] |
231 gretl | [] |
232 hello | [] [] [] [] [] [] |
233 id-utils | [] [] |
234 indent | [] [] [] [] |
235 jpilot | [] [] [] [] |
236 jwhois | [] |
237 kbd | [] [] [] [] [] |
238 ld | [] [] |
239 libc | [] [] [] [] [] [] |
240 libgpewidget | [] |
241 libiconv | [] [] [] [] [] |
242 lifelines | [] () |
243 lilypond | [] |
244 lingoteach | |
245 lingoteach_lessons | () () |
246 lynx | [] [] [] [] |
247 m4 | [] [] [] [] |
248 mailutils | [] [] |
249 make | [] [] [] |
250 man-db | [] () [] [] () |
251 mysecretdiary | [] [] [] |
252 nano | [] () [] [] [] |
253 nano_1_0 | [] () [] [] [] |
254 opcodes | [] [] |
255 parted | [] [] [] [] [] |
256 ptx | [] [] [] [] [] |
257 python | |
258 radius | |
259 recode | [] [] [] [] [] [] |
260 screem | |
261 sed | [] [] [] [] [] |
262 sh-utils | [] [] [] |
263 sharutils | [] [] [] [] [] [] |
264 sketch | [] () [] |
265 soundtracker | [] [] [] |
266 sp | [] |
267 tar | [] [] [] [] |
268 texinfo | [] [] [] [] |
269 textutils | [] [] [] [] |
270 tin | () () |
271 util-linux | [] [] [] [] [] |
272 vorbis-tools | [] [] [] |
273 wastesedge | () |
274 wdiff | [] [] [] [] |
275 wget | [] [] [] [] [] [] [] |
276 xchat | [] [] [] |
277 xpad | |
278 +-------------------------------------------+
279 am az be bg ca cs da de el en en_GB eo es
280 0 1 4 2 31 17 54 60 14 1 4 12 56
281
282 et fa fi fr ga gl he hr hu id it ja ko
283 +----------------------------------------+
284 a2ps | [] [] [] () () |
285 aegis | |
286 anubis | [] |
287 ap-utils | [] |
288 bash | [] [] |
289 batchelor | [] |
290 bfd | [] [] |
291 binutils | [] [] |
292 bison | [] [] [] [] |
293 bluez-pin | [] [] [] [] |
294 clisp | |
295 clisp | [] |
296 coreutils | [] [] [] [] |
297 cpio | [] [] [] [] |
298 darkstat | () [] [] [] |
299 diffutils | [] [] [] [] [] [] [] |
300 e2fsprogs | |
301 enscript | [] [] |
302 error | [] [] [] [] |
303 fetchmail | [] |
304 fileutils | [] [] [] [] [] |
305 findutils | [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] |
306 flex | [] [] |
307 gas | [] |
308 gawk | [] [] |
309 gcal | [] |
310 gcc | [] |
311 gettext | [] [] [] |
312 gettext-runtime | [] [] [] [] |
313 gettext-tools | [] |
314 gimp-print | [] [] |
315 gliv | () |
316 glunarclock | [] [] [] [] |
317 gnucash | [] |
318 gnucash-glossary | [] |
319 gnupg | [] [] [] [] [] [] [] |
320 gpe-calendar | [] |
321 gpe-conf | |
322 gpe-contacts | [] |
323 gpe-edit | [] [] |
324 gpe-login | [] |
325 gpe-ownerinfo | [] [] [] |
326 gpe-sketchbook | [] |
327 gpe-timesheet | [] [] [] |
328 gpe-today | [] [] |
329 gpe-todo | [] [] |
330 gphoto2 | [] [] [] |
331 gprof | [] [] |
332 gpsdrive | () [] () () |
333 grep | [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] |
334 gretl | [] |
335 hello | [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] |
336 id-utils | [] [] [] |
337 indent | [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] |
338 jpilot | [] () |
339 jwhois | [] [] [] [] |
340 kbd | [] |
341 ld | [] |
342 libc | [] [] [] [] [] [] |
343 libgpewidget | [] [] [] |
344 libiconv | [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] |
345 lifelines | () |
346 lilypond | [] |
347 lingoteach | [] [] |
348 lingoteach_lessons | |
349 lynx | [] [] [] [] |
350 m4 | [] [] [] [] |
351 mailutils | |
352 make | [] [] [] [] [] [] |
353 man-db | [] () () |
354 mysecretdiary | [] [] |
355 nano | [] [] [] [] |
356 nano_1_0 | [] [] [] [] |
357 opcodes | [] [] |
358 parted | [] [] [] |
359 ptx | [] [] [] [] [] [] [] |
360 python | |
361 radius | |
362 recode | [] [] [] [] [] [] |
363 screem | |
364 sed | [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] |
365 sh-utils | [] [] [] [] [] [] |
366 sharutils | [] [] [] [] [] |
367 sketch | [] |
368 soundtracker | [] [] [] |
369 sp | [] () |
370 tar | [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] |
371 texinfo | [] [] [] [] |
372 textutils | [] [] [] [] [] |
373 tin | [] () |
374 util-linux | [] [] [] [] () [] |
375 vorbis-tools | [] |
376 wastesedge | () |
377 wdiff | [] [] [] [] [] |
378 wget | [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] |
379 xchat | [] [] [] |
380 xpad | |
381 +----------------------------------------+
382 et fa fi fr ga gl he hr hu id it ja ko
383 20 1 15 73 14 24 8 10 30 31 19 31 9
384
385 lg lt lv ms nb nl nn no pl pt pt_BR ro
386 +----------------------------------------+
387 a2ps | [] [] () () () [] [] |
388 aegis | () |
389 anubis | [] [] |
390 ap-utils | () |
391 bash | [] |
392 batchelor | |
393 bfd | |
394 binutils | |
395 bison | [] [] [] [] |
396 bluez-pin | [] |
397 clisp | |
398 clisp | [] |
399 coreutils | [] |
400 cpio | [] [] [] |
401 darkstat | [] [] [] [] |
402 diffutils | [] [] [] |
403 e2fsprogs | |
404 enscript | [] [] |
405 error | [] [] |
406 fetchmail | () () |
407 fileutils | [] |
408 findutils | [] [] [] [] |
409 flex | [] |
410 gas | |
411 gawk | [] |
412 gcal | |
413 gcc | |
414 gettext | [] |
415 gettext-runtime | [] |
416 gettext-tools | |
417 gimp-print | [] |
418 gliv | [] |
419 glunarclock | [] |
420 gnucash | |
421 gnucash-glossary | [] [] |
422 gnupg | |
423 gpe-calendar | [] [] |
424 gpe-conf | [] [] |
425 gpe-contacts | [] |
426 gpe-edit | [] [] |
427 gpe-login | [] [] |
428 gpe-ownerinfo | [] [] |
429 gpe-sketchbook | [] [] |
430 gpe-timesheet | [] [] |
431 gpe-today | [] [] |
432 gpe-todo | [] [] |
433 gphoto2 | |
434 gprof | [] |
435 gpsdrive | () () () |
436 grep | [] [] [] [] |
437 gretl | |
438 hello | [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] |
439 id-utils | [] [] [] |
440 indent | [] [] [] |
441 jpilot | () () |
442 jwhois | [] [] [] |
443 kbd | |
444 ld | |
445 libc | [] [] [] [] |
446 libgpewidget | [] [] |
447 libiconv | [] [] |
448 lifelines | |
449 lilypond | [] |
450 lingoteach | |
451 lingoteach_lessons | |
452 lynx | [] [] |
453 m4 | [] [] [] [] |
454 mailutils | |
455 make | [] [] |
456 man-db | [] |
457 mysecretdiary | [] |
458 nano | [] [] [] [] |
459 nano_1_0 | [] [] [] [] |
460 opcodes | [] [] [] |
461 parted | [] [] [] |
462 ptx | [] [] [] [] [] [] [] |
463 python | |
464 radius | |
465 recode | [] [] [] |
466 screem | |
467 sed | [] [] |
468 sh-utils | [] |
469 sharutils | [] |
470 sketch | [] |
471 soundtracker | |
472 sp | |
473 tar | [] [] [] [] [] [] |
474 texinfo | [] |
475 textutils | [] |
476 tin | |
477 util-linux | [] [] |
478 vorbis-tools | [] [] |
479 wastesedge | |
480 wdiff | [] [] [] [] |
481 wget | [] [] [] |
482 xchat | [] [] |
483 xpad | [] |
484 +----------------------------------------+
485 lg lt lv ms nb nl nn no pl pt pt_BR ro
486 0 0 2 11 7 26 3 4 18 15 34 34
487
488 ru sk sl sr sv ta tr uk vi wa zh_CN zh_TW
489 +-------------------------------------------+
490 a2ps | [] [] [] [] [] | 16
491 aegis | () | 0
492 anubis | [] [] | 5
493 ap-utils | () | 1
494 bash | [] | 7
495 batchelor | | 1
496 bfd | [] [] [] | 7
497 binutils | [] [] [] | 7
498 bison | [] [] | 13
499 bluez-pin | | 7
500 clisp | | 0
501 clisp | | 5
502 coreutils | [] [] [] [] [] | 14
503 cpio | [] [] [] | 13
504 darkstat | [] () () | 9
505 diffutils | [] [] [] [] | 21
506 e2fsprogs | [] | 3
507 enscript | [] [] [] | 11
508 error | [] [] [] | 14
509 fetchmail | [] | 7
510 fileutils | [] [] [] [] [] [] | 15
511 findutils | [] [] [] [] [] [] | 27
512 flex | [] [] [] | 10
513 gas | [] | 3
514 gawk | [] [] | 9
515 gcal | [] [] | 4
516 gcc | [] | 4
517 gettext | [] [] [] [] [] [] | 15
518 gettext-runtime | [] [] [] [] [] [] | 16
519 gettext-tools | [] [] | 5
520 gimp-print | [] [] | 10
521 gliv | | 1
522 glunarclock | [] [] [] | 11
523 gnucash | [] [] | 4
524 gnucash-glossary | [] [] [] | 8
525 gnupg | [] [] [] [] | 16
526 gpe-calendar | [] | 5
527 gpe-conf | | 3
528 gpe-contacts | [] | 4
529 gpe-edit | [] | 5
530 gpe-login | [] | 5
531 gpe-ownerinfo | [] | 7
532 gpe-sketchbook | [] | 5
533 gpe-timesheet | [] | 6
534 gpe-today | [] | 6
535 gpe-todo | [] | 6
536 gphoto2 | [] [] | 9
537 gprof | [] [] | 7
538 gpsdrive | [] [] | 3
539 grep | [] [] [] [] | 24
540 gretl | | 2
541 hello | [] [] [] [] [] | 33
542 id-utils | [] [] [] | 11
543 indent | [] [] [] [] | 19
544 jpilot | [] [] [] [] [] | 10
545 jwhois | () () [] [] | 10
546 kbd | [] [] | 8
547 ld | [] [] | 5
548 libc | [] [] [] [] | 20
549 libgpewidget | | 6
550 libiconv | [] [] [] [] [] [] | 21
551 lifelines | [] | 2
552 lilypond | [] | 4
553 lingoteach | | 2
554 lingoteach_lessons | () | 0
555 lynx | [] [] [] [] | 14
556 m4 | [] [] [] | 15
557 mailutils | | 2
558 make | [] [] [] [] | 15
559 man-db | [] | 6
560 mysecretdiary | [] [] | 8
561 nano | [] [] [] | 15
562 nano_1_0 | [] [] [] | 15
563 opcodes | [] [] | 9
564 parted | [] [] | 13
565 ptx | [] [] [] | 22
566 python | | 0
567 radius | | 0
568 recode | [] [] [] [] | 19
569 screem | [] | 1
570 sed | [] [] [] [] [] | 20
571 sh-utils | [] [] [] | 13
572 sharutils | [] [] [] [] | 16
573 sketch | [] | 5
574 soundtracker | [] | 7
575 sp | [] | 3
576 tar | [] [] [] [] [] | 24
577 texinfo | [] [] [] [] | 13
578 textutils | [] [] [] [] [] | 15
579 tin | | 1
580 util-linux | [] [] | 14
581 vorbis-tools | [] | 7
582 wastesedge | | 0
583 wdiff | [] [] [] [] | 17
584 wget | [] [] [] [] [] [] [] | 25
585 xchat | [] [] [] | 11
586 xpad | | 1
587 +-------------------------------------------+
588 50 teams ru sk sl sr sv ta tr uk vi wa zh_CN zh_TW
589 97 domains 32 19 16 0 56 0 48 10 1 1 12 23 913
590
591 Some counters in the preceding matrix are higher than the number of
592visible blocks let us expect. This is because a few extra PO files are
593used for implementing regional variants of languages, or language
594dialects.
595
596 For a PO file in the matrix above to be effective, the package to
597which it applies should also have been internationalized and
598distributed as such by its maintainer. There might be an observable
599lag between the mere existence a PO file and its wide availability in a
600distribution.
601
602 If May 2003 seems to be old, you may fetch a more recent copy of
603this `ABOUT-NLS' file on most GNU archive sites. The most up-to-date
604matrix with full percentage details can be found at
605`http://www.iro.umontreal.ca/contrib/po/HTML/matrix.html'.
606
607Using `gettext' in new packages
608===============================
609
610 If you are writing a freely available program and want to
611internationalize it you are welcome to use GNU `gettext' in your
612package. Of course you have to respect the GNU Library General Public
613License which covers the use of the GNU `gettext' library. This means
614in particular that even non-free programs can use `libintl' as a shared
615library, whereas only free software can use `libintl' as a static
616library or use modified versions of `libintl'.
617
618 Once the sources are changed appropriately and the setup can handle
619the use of `gettext' the only thing missing are the translations. The
620Free Translation Project is also available for packages which are not
621developed inside the GNU project. Therefore the information given above
622applies also for every other Free Software Project. Contact
623`translation@iro.umontreal.ca' to make the `.pot' files available to
624the translation teams.
625

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